*United States Census Bureau. “Quick Facts: New York City, New York.” July 1, 2021.; Bruce Western, Jaclyn Davis, Flavien Ganter, and Natalie Smith. “The Cumulative Risk of Jail Incarceration.” PNAS 118, No. 16. (2021). pnas.2023429118; Reuven Blau.“Racial Gap in City Jails Has Only Gotten Worse, John Jay Study Finds.” The City. March 2, 2023.
**Jan Ransom and Jonah E. Bromwich. “ ‘I Just Want to Be Normal’: A Mentally Ill Man’s Death at Rikers.” The New York Times. September 27, 2021., citing Anthony Shorris and Mindy Tarlow. Preliminary Mayor’s Management Report, February 2016. 62.
***As of November 2022, more than 84 percent of the people detained on Rikers Island were there pretrial. Michael Rempel. Decarceration in the Bail Reform Era: New York City’s Changing Jail Population Since 2019. John Jay College, Data Collaborative for Justice. December 2022.
****New York City Comptroller. “Comptroller Stringer: Cost of Incarceration per Person in New York City Skyrockets to All-Time High.” December 6,2021.
Sahalie Donaldson. “What’s Up with the New York City Schools Budget This Year?” City & State New York. May 4, 2023; Celina Su. “Eric Adams Is Trying to Push More Austerity on New Yorkers Through His Executive Budget.” Jacobin. May 5, 2023.